This concept may be a match since the purpose and effect are identical. Only the scope may be a bit different inasmuch as execution procedures used by the bailiff tend to be different from that of the German Gerichtsvollzieher. The most closely analogous concepts in the US is the prejudgment attachment or prejudgment writ of attachment, which allows the recovery of money damages by levying a security interest on the property of the party paying money damages. A writ of attachment is filed to secure debt or claim of the creditor in the event that a judgment is rendered.
There are multiple definitions - click on the translation that matches your context.
the action of taking temporary possession of someone's assets, especially when they may be needed for the payment of a judgment in a judicial proceeding
Because he failed to pay child support there was an attachment order placed on his wages.